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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Characteristics of Joint Products and Joint Cost:PART 3

Many products or services are linked together by physical relationships which necessitate simultaneous production. To the point of split-off or to the point where these several products emerge as individual units, the cost of the products forms a homogeneous whole.

The classic example of joint products is found in the meat packing industry, where various cuts of meet and numerous by products are processed from one original carcass with one lump-sum cost. An other example of joint products manufacturing is the production of gasoline, where the derivation of gasoline inevitably results in the production of such items as naphtha, kerosene, and distillate fuel oils. Other examples of joint products manufacturing are the simultaneous production of various grads of glue and the processing of soybeans into oil and meal. Joint product costing is also found in industries that must grade raw materials before it is processed. Tobacco manufacturers (except in cases where graded tobacco is purchased) and virtually all fruit and vegetables canners face the problem of grading. In fact, such manufacturers have a dual problem of joint cost allocation:

Materials cost is applicable to all grades
Subsequent manufacturing costs are incurred simultaneously for all the different grads.
The chief characteristic of the joint cost is the fact that the cost of these several different products is incurred in an indivisible sum for all products, rather than in individual amounts for each product. The total production cost of multiple products involves both joint cost and separate, individual products cost. These separable product costs are identifiably with the individual product and, generally, need no allocation. However, the joint production cost requires allocation or assignment to the individual products.

Definition and Explanation of By Products:
The term "by product" is generally used to denote one or more products of relatively small total value that are produced simultaneously with a product of greater total value. The product with the greater value, commonly called the "main product", is usually produced in greater quantities than the by products. Ordinarily, the manufacturer has only limited control over the quantity of the by product that comes into existence. However, the introduction of more advanced engineering methods, such as in the petroleum industry, has permitted greater control over the quantity of residual products. In fact, one company, which formerly paid a trucker to haul away and dump certain waste materials, discovered that the waste was valuable as fertilizer, and this by product is now an additional source of income for the entire industry.

Nature of By-Products:
The accounting treatment of by-products necessitates a reasonably complete knowledge of the technological factors underlying their manufacture, since the origins of by products may vary. By-products arising from the cleansing of the main product, such as gas and tar from coke manufacture, generally have a residual value. In some cases, the by product is left over scrap or waste, such as sawdust in lumber mills. In other cases, the by product may not be the result of any manufacturing process but may arise from preparing raw materials before they are used in the manufacture of the main product. The separation of cotton seed from cotton, cores and seeds from apples, and shells from coca beans are examples of this type of product.

By product can be classified into the following two groups according to their marketable condition at the split-off point:

Those sold in their original form without need of further processing.
Those which require further processing in order to be saleable.

Recognition of Gross Revenue Method--By Products Costing:

This method is typical non-cost procedure in which the final inventory cost of the main product is overstated to the extent that some of the cost belongs to the by product.

However this shortcoming is somewhat removed in procedure 4 (by product revenue deducted from the production cost), although a sales value rather than a cost is deducted from the production cost of the main product.

1.By-Product Revenue as Other Income:
To explain this procedure the following example is presented:

Sales (Main Product, 10,000 units @ $2) $20,000
Cost of goods sold:
Beginning inventory (1,000 units @ $1.5) $1,500
Total production cost (11,000 units @ $1.5) $16,500
Cost of goods avail able for sale $18,000
Ending inventory (2,000 units @ $1.5) $3,000
Gross profit 5,000
Marketing and administrative expenses $2,000
Operating income $3,000
Other income: Revenue from sale of by-product $1,500
Income before income tax $4,500

2. By-Product Revenue as Additional Sales Revenue:
In this case, the income statement above would show the $1,500 revenue from sales of the by product as an addition to sales of the main product. As a result, total sales revenue would be $21,500, and gross profit and operating income would increase accordingly. All other figures would remain the same.

3. By Product Revenue as a Deduction from the Cost of Goods Sold:
In this case, $1,500 revenue from the by product would be deducted from the $15,000 cost of goods sold figure, thereby reducing the cost and increasing the gross profit and operating income. The income before income tax remains at $4,500.

4. By Product Revenue deducted from Production Cost:
In this case, the $1,500 revenue from by-product sales is deducted from the $16,500 total production cost, giving a new production cost of $15,000. This revised cost results in a new average unit cost of $1.3625 for the main product. The final inventory will consequently be $2,725 instead of $3,000. The income statement would appear as follows:

Sales (Main Product, 10,000 units @ $2) $20,000

Cost of goods sold:
Beginning inventory (1,000 units @ $1.35) $1,350
Total production cost (11,000 units @ $1.5) $16,500
Revenue from sale of by product $1,500
Net production cost $15,000
Cost of goods available for sale 12000units @1.3625 average cost
Ending inventory (2,000 units @ $1.3625) $2,725
Gross profit $6,375
Marketing and administrative expenses $2,000
Operating income $4,375

The preceding method required no complicated journal entries. The revenue received from by product sales is debited to cash or accounts receivable. In the first three cases, income from sales of by product is credited; in the fourth case, the production cost of the main product is credited.

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