FOR B.COM STUDENTS
B.COM KARACHI UNIVERSITY
Wednesday, April 29, 2009
Tuesday, April 28, 2009
Swine influenza (also swine flu) refers to influenza caused by any virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae, that is endemic to pig (swine) populations. Strains endemic in swine are called swine influenza virus(SIV), and all known strains of SIV are classified as Influenzavirus A (common) or Influenzavirus C (rare).Influenzavirus B has not been reported in swine. All three clades, Influenzavirus A, B, and C, are endemic in humans.
People who work with poultry and swine, especially people with intense exposures, are at risk of infection from these animals if the animals carry a strain that is also able to infect humans. SIV can mutate into a form that allows it to pass from human to human. The strain responsible for the 2009 swine flu outbreak is believed to have undergone this mutation.
Signs and Symptoms:
ccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. A few more patients than usual have also reported diarrhea and vomiting.
Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probableswine flu requires not only symptoms but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the 7 days preceding their illness onset. A diagnosis ofconfirmed swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample (a simple nose and throat swab).
Swine flu in humans
People who work with poultry and swine, especially people with intense exposures, are at increased risk of zoonotic infection with influenza virus endemic in these animals, and constitute a population of human hosts in which zoonosis and reassortment can co-occur. Transmission of influenza from swine to humans who work with swine was documented in a small surveillance study performed in 2004 at the University of Iowa. This study among others forms the basis of a recommendation that people whose jobs involve handling poultry and swine be the focus of increased public health surveillance. The 2009 swine flu outbreak is an apparent reassortment of several strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, including a strain endemic in humans and two strains endemic in pigs, as well as an avian influenza.
The CDC reports that the symptoms and transmission of the swine flu from human to human is much like that of seasonal flu. Common symptoms include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing, while runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have also been reported. It is believed to be spread between humans through coughing or sneezing of infected people and touching something with the virus on it and then touching their own nose or mouth. Swine flu cannot be spread by pork products, since the virus is not transmitted through food. The swine flu in humans is most contagious during the first five days of the illness although some people, most commonly children, can remain contagious for up to ten days. Diagnosis can be made by sending a specimen, collected during the first five days, to the CDC for analysis.
The swine flu is susceptible to four drugs licensed in the United States, amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir, however, for the 2009 outbreak it is recommended it be treated under medical advice only with oseltamivir and zanamivir to avoid drug resistance. The vaccine for the human seasonal H1N1 flu does not protect against the swine H1N1 flu, even if the virus strains are the same specific variety, as they are antigenically very different.
Prevention: Recommendations to prevent infection by the virus consist of the standard personal precautions against influenzaThis includes frequent washing of hands with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizers, especially after being out in-public. People should avoid touching their mouth, nose or eyes with their hands unless they've washed their hands. If people do cough, they should either cough into a tissue and throw it in the garbage immediately, cough into their elbow, or, if they cough in their hand, they should wash their hands immediately.
Swine influenza has become a greater problem in recent decades as the evolution of the virus has resulted in inconsistent responses to traditional vaccines. Standard commercial swine flu vaccines are effective in controlling the infection when the virus strains match enough to have significant cross-protection, and custom (autogenous) vaccines made from the specific viruses isolated are created and used in the more difficult cases.
Present vaccination strategies for SIV control and prevention in swine farms, typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 isolates had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests that current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses.
2009 swine flu outbreak
The new strain of influenza involved in the 2009 swine flu outbreak strain is a reassortment of several strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that are, separately,endemic in humans and in swine. Preliminary genetic characterization found that thehemagglutinin (HA) gene was similar to that of swine flu viruses present in U.S. pigs since 1999, but the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M) genes resembled versions present in European swine flu isolates. Viruses with this genetic makeup had not previously been found to be circulating in humans or pigs, but there is no formal national surveillance system to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs in the U.S.
The origins of this new strain remain unknown. One theory is that Asian and European strains traveled to Mexico in migratory birds or in people, then combined with North American strains in Mexican pig factory farms before jumping over to farm workers.]The Mexican health agency acknowledged that the original disease vector of the virus may have been flies multiplying in manure lagoons of pig farms near Perote, Veracruz, owned by Granjas Carroll, a subsidiary of Smithfield Foods.
Main symptoms of swine flu in humans
Monday, April 20, 2009
For any whodunit to succeed, it ought to hold your interest till the very last frame. Most importantly, the answers raised in the screenplay have to be convincing and justified. But 8 x 10 TASVEER gets unbearable towards the penultimate 20-25 minutes. When the mask is taken off the killer's face, you are surprised. But the reasons that compelled him to act that way are childish. What happened, Mr. Kukunoor? To cut a long story short, this tasveer is out of focus! 8 x 10 TASVEER is about Jai [Akshay Kumar], who possesses supernatural powers. Jai is of Indian origin who works as a forest ranger in Canada. His life is shattered by a loss of an important person in his life - his father [Benjamin Gilani]. This personal tragedy leads him to use his unique supernatural powers to unravel the mystery.
Now let's get to the root of the problem: The discrepancies in the script. Of course, 8 x 10 TASVEER is a whodunit and it would be sacrilege to reveal the end or the identity of the killer, but the reasons that compel the murderer to commit crime after crime are unbelievable and far from convincing. The moment the truth is out in the open, from that point onwards, the writer doesn't have convincing answers to offer. There are so many gaps that remain wide open till the end. Nagesh Kukunoor goes two steps ahead as a technician, but five steps behind as a storyteller. The film has been shot stylishly and the breath-taking locales of Canada and South Africa only give the film a picture perfect look. But the screenplay is faulty. So faulty that you exit the auditorium with questions and more questions in your mind. The outcome fails to convince. Vikas Sivaraman's cinematography is top notch. The locales are splendid and the DoP has captured them with élan. There's no scope for music in the film and the three songs [opening titles, romantic song and end credits] are passable. The background score [Salim-Sulaiman] is electrifying. Akshay pitches in a sincere performance. 8 x 10 TASVEER is a complete departure from the kind of films the actor is popular for and it only goes to prove that he's ready to experiment. Ayesha is natural. Sharmila Tagore is graceful. Jaaved Jaaferi is first-rate. Girish Karnad, Benjamin Gilani, Ananth Mahadevan and Rushaad Rana are perfect in their respective roles. On the whole, 8 x 10 TASVEER disappoints. The film goes wrong, in fact horribly wrong, in the penultimate 20-25 minutes, which is the lifeline of any suspense-thriller. Nagesh Kukunoor has missed the bus this time!
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